Kindergarten in a Large Urban District

Mimi Engel, Robin Jacob, Amy Claessens, Anna Erickson
Using data from 82 classroom observations conducted in a large urban school district, we explore how kindergarteners spend their time in general and across schools serving children from lower and higher income households. Consistent with prior research, we find that kindergartners spend the majority of instructional time on reading and mathematics, with little time devoted to other subjects. Two and a half hours per day, on average, are spent on non-instructional activities such as transitions. Kindergarteners in lower income schools spend more time on reading and mathematics and experience more non-instructional time. They also spend substantially less time being physically active and have fewer opportunities to choose their own activities than their peers in higher income schools.
...the kindergarten year has the potential to shape children’s expectations for, and attitudes toward, schooling.” Page 2